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Types of employment and labor law in Germany

Main types of employment in Germany

Full-time employment (Vollzeit Beschäftigung) – Such a contract may be open-ended or limited in time, depending on the type of work and the employer. In Germany, this is an ideal option for those who need confidence in the future, seek a work visa and want to stay in the country for a long time. Under this employment contract, you work 40 hours per week, and the probationary period is a maximum of 6 months, unless otherwise specified in the contract.

Part-time employment (Teilzeit Beschäftigung) – A more flexible, contractual contract for those who need to work 20-35 hours a week.

Minijob – A small number of working hours and a low salary of up to 450 euros / month. Under such conditions, the employee does not pay taxes and social security contributions.

Student contract (Studentenjob) – Prerequisites for such a contract – to be enrolled in a German university. The maximum number of working hours is 20 hours per week, 120 full working days per year or 240 part-time days per year. Usually student contracts are very flexible.

What is a minijob?

Minijobbers in Germany are those who earn less than € 450 per month or whose employment is limited to three months or 70 working days per year and – if the salary exceeds 450 euros per month – this employment is not the main job (short-term employment). This type of employment is informally called Minijob, and officially – Geringfügige Beschäftigung. There are separate laws and rules of taxation for this type of labor relations

Due to the increase in the minimum wage to 12 euros this year, the upper limit of wages for minijobbers  will also increase. It is planned to be 520 euros per month. According to the Federal Minister of Labor the new limit on minijob will apply from October 1, 2022.

Minijobbers are insured in the state system against accidents at work and diseases caused while working. They do not pay contributions to social security: medical insurance, care insurance and unemployment insurance. Default pension contributions must be paid, but this can also be waived. At the same time, employers are obliged to pay their share of social security contributions from wages.

Under labor law, part-time workers have the same status as their full-time counterparts. They have the right to the statutory minimum wage, as well as to receive salary in case of illness and absence from work on holidays.

Labor law (in Ukrainian)